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Forslund, Jenny, 2011. TITTA - en metod för att skapa konstruerade perspektiv. Second cycle, A2E. Uppsala: SLU, Dept. of Urban and Rural Development

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Abstract

Detta arbete skrev jag under våren 2011. Anledningen till hela arbetet är min fascination för bilder. Redan under mitt kandidatarbete såg jag hur bilder kan vara till stor hjälp för att aktivera och engagera människor. Jag ville undersöka det vidare och se hur vi som landskapsarkitekter kan använda den konstruerade bilden, perspektivet, för att förmedla våra idéer. Under olika skeden och i olika sammanhang kan vi utnyttja perspektivet för att visa våra idéer över en plats som håller på att gestaltas.

Landskapsarkitekter arbetar med objekt som inte finns, vi arbetar med en föreställning om hur det kan bli. Vi måste hela tiden redovisa och beskriva våra tankar för att visa kollegor, beställare och brukare hur en plats kan förändras. Bilder finns överallt omkring oss vilket gör att många är vana vid dem och ofta förstår och kan ta dem till sig. Det gör det till ett ypperligt medium att använda för att visa nya idéer och tankar kring en plats.

Det finns mycket forskning kring hur människan upplever bilder och hur bilder påverkar oss. Genom litteraturstudier har jag fått mer kunskap om bilder och bildkomposition. Det mesta som är skrivet är dock riktat till fotografer och till reklambranschen. Därför har jag även haft samtal med
yrkesverksamma arkitekter och landskapsarkitekter för att
ta reda på hur de använder sig av perspektiv i sin yrkesroll.

Genom den teoretiska litteraturstudien och samtalen kom jag fram till ett antal punkter som är viktiga att tänka på när man ska bygga upp och konstruera ett perspektiv. Dessa är;

- målgrupp och scenario
- mål och bildvinkel
- manér
- komposition
- format
- färg

Genom att systematiskt gå igenom alla punkter kan man sätta upp en ram för perspektivet. Ramen hjälper dig sen att förhålla dig till bilden och på så sätt bygga upp den. Ramen begränsar på ett positivt sätt genom att inte tillåta alla val vad det gäller färg, form och komposition. På så sätt kan du bli effektivare och snabbare och veta när bilden är klar utifrån din ram.

För att applicera den teoretiska kunskapen i praktiken gjorde jag tre undersökande exempel. Det för att själva test hur det blir när man utgår från de olika punkterna och eventuellt kunna justera dem. De undersökande exemplen utmynnade i tre perspektiv med tre olika utgångspunkter, scenario.

- möte med en uppdragsgivare,
- för de boende på platsen och
- medverkande i en tävling.

Genom att bestämma innehållet i punkterna skapade jag en ram för vart och ett av perspektiven. Därefter började jag
arbeta både med skisser för hand och i datorn för att få fram ett slutgiltigt perspektiv.

Genom arbetet med de undersökande exemplen kom jag fram till en modifierad metod som är mer anpassad till arkitektens och landskapsarkitektens arbete med perspektiv. Eftersom vi gör ett perspektiv för att visa upp ett gestaltat förslag är det ytterligare aspekter som vi måste tänka på. Det vi måste ta hänsyn och ställning till är följande punkter;

- målgrupp och scenario
- mål och bildvinkel
- uttryck
- bildens helhet
- tredjedelsindelningar och horisont
- hitta bildens rörelsemönster
- färg
- tidpunkt

Arbetet med teorin och praktiken tycker jag har fungerat bra och jag har verkligen blivit hjälpt av den metod som jag har kommit fram till. Det har gjort att jag mycket snabbare och effektivare kunnat färdigställt ett perspektiv. Jag har haft en grund att stå på och ett angreppssätt som gjort att jag redan innan haft ett mål. Det finns en speciell målgrupp och ett speciellt syfte med bilden vilket begränsat mina val. Det går till exempel inte tid åt att fundera vilken färgton jag ska använda eftersom jag redan valt det innan med hänsyn till syftet med bilden.

Jag har själv använt mig av kollageteknik i mina perspektiv men metoden som jag kommit fram till ska gå att applicera oavsett teknik. Det viktiga är att man har ett klart syfte och mål med bilden och att man tänker på helheten. I de samtal jag har haft har det kommit upp att det är viktigt att skissa för hand för att hitta sin personliga stil. Jag håller med om det men tror definitivt att man kan hitta sin personliga stil i datorn också. Datorn erbjuder ju också möjligheten att blanda olika stilar och verktyg. Det viktiga är inte med vilka verktyg man arbetar utan att det finns en person och en idé bakom förslaget och perspektivet.

,

I created this master thesis in the spring of 2011. The
purpose of the thesis is to further investigate my fascination with images. During my Bachelor’s essay I discovered how images can activate and engage people. I wanted to use my experiences to see how us landscape architects can use the constructed image, the perspective, to convey our ideas. During the different stages of our design process as well as in different contexts, were we can use the perspective to
communicate our designs.

Landscape architects often work with objects that does not exist; we are working with an idea of how it could be. We must always recognize and describe our thoughts to show both colleagues, clients and users how a place can change. Images are all around us, which means that many of us are familiar with them and how to read them. That makes the image an excellent medium to use when showing new ideas and thoughts regarding a place.

The purpose of this master thesis is:
- to create a perspective to suit different situations
- to present a method to better and faster select and
design perspectives for different situations.

Method
To figure out how to construct perspectives for different situations, I devoted myself to literature studies, discussions with architects and landscape architects and investigations with pen, paper and the computer.

Literature Study
To learn more about images and image composition, I have researched a large number of books in the field of image composition and visual communication. The literature I have found at the library, on the Internet and in the reference lists of the researched books.

Discussions with architects and landscape architects.
Many of the books within the field are directed at photographers, artists and the advertising industry. To get an insight into how architects think about perspective, I contacted three architects and landscape architects who are working with perspectives in their professional lives. It was important for me to have discussions with professional architects to see how they make use of perspective in their profession.

Investigative example
To apply all knowledge I have learned through my research in to actual examples, I have constructed three perspectives from three different scenarios. Different issues can arise during a design process in which a perspective may help to convey the proposal. I have chosen to focus on examples where the actual design of the site is done. The three examples are based in situations that are recurring in a landscape architect’s work, the meeting with a client; a display for users of the new location and in a contest among several other proposals.

Background Studies
Through the theoretical literature review and the discussions with architects, I came to a number of important conclusions that you need to remember when you construct your perspective

An image is perceived by people in seconds. We have only a short time to catch the viewer and keep her interested. The purpose of image composition is to present the contents of the image and guide the viewer to see what is essential.
It is necessary to find the right target group for the image and use that as the starting point for the message of the image. Depending on whom the recipient of the picture is you can apply a different style from completely realistic to very
abstract.

All the pieces of the image are working together to form a whole. It is important to treat the entire image with the foreground, between the plane and background as one.

Different formats have different inherent energy. The greater the difference in height and width, the greater energy the image has.

We read an image from the bottom and up, and for each horizontal level the eyes runs to the right and back. This is different from a document with both text and images, which we scan from top to bottom. In both cases, however, we read from left to right and you have to balance the picture accordingly. The objects to the left should be a bit bigger so that we do not read the images too fast. On the other hand it is important to control that the left side does not block the viewer to enter the image.

It is difficult to use two equal-sized volumes in the image, since it can easily become static, and the eyes rove back and forth. It is better to use a dominant side that shows where the viewer should start looking at the picture. After that you can lead the eyes into the picture through contrasts as large-small or light-dark.

Find the image thirds and work with the contrasts between them. Working with intersections that arise from the thirds will lead to a dynamic picture.
Consider the placement of humans in the image and use colors from the atmosphere and the purpose of the image.

These are general aspects that are important to take into consideration at all times when constructing the perspective. To move forward and to create a particular perspective for a certain situation, I started to ask myself questions about the perspective. I summarized the questions into one or a few keywords.

What target group is the image intended for? Who is the viewer? Where will the image appear? In what situation will the viewer be when she sees the picture? The keywords were: target group and scenario.

What is the purpose with the image? What should the picture show and what will it tell the viewer? What do I want the viewer to see in the picture? These questions I summarized into: aim and viewing angle.

How much will the image show? Should it be a realistic or an abstract picture? Can I use the four mannerisms? Which of the four mannerisms will the image strive against? The word I summarized was mannerism.

What composition should the image have? What is important to include in the different parts of the image? What should be present in the foreground, between the plane and in the background? The keyword to describe the answers to those questions was: composition.

Which format is best, based on what I want the image to convey? Should it be a restful or more energy-rich format? What is the screen size? The keyword is: the format.
What feeling do I want to create in the picture? Which colors helps to set that mood? Last keyword to consider: color.

The six points you must consider before you begin with your image is thus;

target group and scenario
aim and viewing angle
mannerism
composition
format
color

I refer to the six points as specific aspects, since they are based on the specific message I want to convey through the image. By systematically going through these points you can form the framework and a foundation for your perspective. The framework will help you to conduct yourself to the
image. The framework limits you in a positive way by not allowing all of the choices when it comes to color, shape and composition. This means that you will be more efficient and work faster, and you know when the image is finished according to your framework.

Investigative example
To apply the theoretical knowledge in practice, I made three investigative examples. I did this to be able to explore what happens when you use the specific aspects. The examples resulted in three perspectives with three different starting points, scenarios. The scenarios I assumed was a meeting with a client, an image intended for the residents on the site and an entry for a contest. By determining the contents of the specific aspects, I created the framework for each of the perspectives. After that I started working with both sketches and the computer to produce three final perspectives.

Through the work of the investigative examples I concluded the method as useful to follow, but some of the aspects are less relevant. I also found some new points that are important to consider. The modified method is more suited to the architect and landscape architect’s work with the perspective.

Modified method
Using a method to get started and become more efficient in constructing a perspective worked very well. With a mixture of the specific aspects and my new discoveries the modified method is as follows:

Target group and scenario - The target group will help you decide to whom you address the image. That way you can have one or a number of persons in mind when making your perspective. That way you can always go back and test whether your target group will understand the image.

Aim and viewing angle - It is important to know the aim for the image so you know where you are going and when the image is complete. What will the image show?

Expression - I found it difficult to relate to the word mannerism. What I think is important to keep in mind is what kind of expression you want your perspective to have. The longer the process has gone the more specified the proposal is and the perspective can be more and more detailed. Ask yourself how ready the proposal is.

The picture as a whole - it is important to early think about what parts to include in the perspective. That way you can quickly build a foundation that is easy to dress. Find the background, between the plane and the foreground and move progressively through all three of them.

Third divisions and horizon. The intersections between the third divisions are a great way to place objects and humans into the image. From there, you can easily adjust them to one side or the other. Find the horizon so that the humans are placed in the right position.

Find the image motion. Make sure that the eyes always have something to cling to the edges and then are directed back into the picture. Double check that nothing is blocking your eyes or draw them away either to the right or the left.

Color. Find a color palette to start with but dare to experiment. It saves a lot of time to have a set color palette to work with because you do not have to chose colors in in all the steps. Using this step, everything in the picture will also be a certain tone which makes it easier to change colors later.

Time. Decide what time of day and part of the year the picture should show before you start. This helps you to many time-saving decisions.

Conclusion and reflection
The purpose of this master thesis was to find a method that will be applicable on all kind of perspectives. The three perspectives I have chosen to create are just examples to translate theory into practice. The reason why I chose to do practical examples and not just read in theory was to see if the specific aspects really worked in practice. The work with the examples has made me aware of important aspects to think about and relate to. This has meant that I can consciously move away from them and choose to do differently. By having an understanding of how people perceive and view the pictures I can use this awareness to construct my picture with the message I want it to convey.

In landscape architecture, we use illustrations in various ways to try to demonstrate the ideas we have of the places we design. The question we should ask ourselves is whether we need a method for making images, can we just use our gut instinct and do what feels good? Would a method really help us? My response to these questions is that it is easier to be efficient if you have a foundation, a framework, to lean on. To get started with the image and to be forced to make decisions without testing first, you need guidelines.

Today’s high pace, both at university and at work. By becoming aware of the choices and have a method to start with, I can streamline the process of creating a successful perspective. That way I can, in principle, always make a point of view of the context I need the image for.

I have also learned that the more I read and knowledge, the more I realize that I do not know. Therefore, this thesis has stimulated me to learn even more about the images, about computer programs and to sketch more. Everything is in the hands of the person with the idea to convey.

Main title:TITTA - en metod för att skapa konstruerade perspektiv
Authors:Forslund, Jenny
Supervisor:Dahlman, Ylva
Examiner:Sandqvist, Sofia
Series:UNSPECIFIED
Volume/Sequential designation:UNSPECIFIED
Year of Publication:2011
Level and depth descriptor:Second cycle, A2E
Student's programme affiliation:LARKU Landscape Architecture Programme, Ultuna (admitted before July 1, 2007) 300 HEC
Department:(NL, NJ) > Dept. of Urban and Rural Development
(LTJ, LTV) > Dept. of Urban and Rural Development
Keywords:Landskapsarkitektur, perspektiv, konstruerade bilder, metod, bilder
URN:NBN:urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-s-495
Permanent URL:
http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-s-495
Subjects:Landscape architecture
Language:Swedish
Deposited On:08 Aug 2011 09:46
Metadata Last Modified:20 Apr 2012 14:21

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