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Karlsson, Åsa, 2010. Bacterial contamination of egg shells in deep litter floor systems and conventional cages in Jordan. First cycle, G2E. Uppsala: SLU, Dept. of Animal Nutrition and Management (until 231231)



This study was carried out in Jordan with the purpose to investigate the bacterial micro
flora of egg shells from cage systems and from deep litter floor systems. Another aim was
to get a general impression of the hygiene, at farm level, of egg production in Jordan and
the factors affecting it.

Eggs from two cage systems and three floor systems were analyzed, regarding bacterial
contamination of the egg shells. Egg samples were taken from the storage room, the egg
cradle in the cage system and from the nest and floor in the floor system. To get a general
impression of the hygiene at the farms, swab tests and air tests were performed. Swab tests
were performed with a sterile cotton swab at the same units as the eggs were sampled and
air tests were performed by opening petri dishes where the hens were staying. One hundred
eggs from the storage room at three of the farms were also candled to examine the frequency
of cracked eggs. Because the eggs were already collected from the nest/cradle, this
implied that eggs with visible cracks were not included in the cracked eggs frequency.

The egg samples were rinsed in a homogenizer bag containing sterile buffered peptone
water. From this solution microbial testing was performed, including spreading on agar
plates in order to receive quantitative results concerning the presence of Salmonella, coliforms/
E. coli and Campylobacter. The data were analyzed statistically.

To get an overview of the factors affecting bacterial contamination at the different
farms, questions including housing system and use of antibiotics were asked. The use of
antibiotics was not regulated and antibiotics was given in water or feed at most of the

The cage system was significantly cleaner than the floor system regarding bacterial total
count, Salmonella and E. coli on egg shells. The result regarding cracks is not reliable due
to the removal if visible cracks. Regarding the hygienic aspect of egg production in Jordan
much can be improved. Antibiotics and disinfectants were used without prescriptions and
Salmonella and Campylobacter were found at all farms, either at the egg shell or at the egg
cradle/nest. The temerarious use of antibiotics can also result in development of resistant
bacteria which is a risk for the public health.

Main title:Bacterial contamination of egg shells in deep litter floor systems and conventional cages in Jordan
Authors:Karlsson, Åsa
Supervisor:Elwinger, Klas
Examiner:Tauson, Ragnar
Series:Examensarbete / Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, Institutionen för husdjurens utfodring och vård
Volume/Sequential designation:297
Year of Publication:2010
Level and depth descriptor:First cycle, G2E
Student's programme affiliation:VY001 Agricultural Science Programme - Animal Science 270 HEC
Supervising department:(VH) > Dept. of Animal Nutrition and Management (until 231231)
Keywords:layer, jordan, egg shell, bacterial contamination, housing sysetm
Permanent URL:
Subject. Use of subject categories until 2023-04-30.:Handling, transport, storage and protection of animal products
Food contamination and toxicology
Deposited On:18 Nov 2010 14:48
Metadata Last Modified:20 Apr 2012 14:16

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