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Ruvuga, Peter, 2016. Goat production in the tropics and mitigation to feed shortage in different production systems in Eastern, Tanzania. Second cycle, A2E. Uppsala: SLU, Dept. of Animal Nutrition and Management (until 231231)



Seasonal feed fluctuation is the common problem among livestock keepers in the tropics. Even though there have been several intervention programs to the farm level little is known after these projects had phased out. This study was conducted to describe goat production systems, feed shortage mitigation in the dry period, versatility of previous feed shortage mitigation projects and identify other challenges in Eastern Tanzania. Stratified random sampling technique was employed whereby goat farmers under small scale intensive system (n = 21) in Tchenzema and Nyandira wards and extensive pastoralist system (n = 37) in Mangae and Dakawa wards were visited and interviewed on herd size, goat management, challenges they face and their suggested solutions. Informal discussion with the key informants namely Ward Livestock Officers (WLO) about issues facing the goat farmers was also conducted. Collected data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS IBM 22) to generate descriptive statistics, Mann-Whitney U test for the herd structure and size and Chi-square for proportions analysis.
There were significant differences between the intensive and pastoralists herd structure and size. Interviewed pastoralists (91.9%) and interviewed intensive farmers (76.2%) kept goat as the source of income. Goats were also kept as food source by 78.4% and 100% pastoralists and interviewed intensive farmers, respectively. Pastoralists (2.7%) and 95.2% intensive farmers benefited by goat manure, extra importance of goat production among pastoralists was insurance (43.2%) and traditional uses (10.8%). Intensive farmers tethered and fed concentrates to their goats alternatively pastoralists relied on grazing in the communal rangeland with little supplementation. Pastoralists mentioned dry period (July-October) as the time when goat feeds were scarce, intensive farmers experienced shortage during their farm fields’ preparation for crop cultivation. To mitigate scarcity intensive farmers opted for cut and carry system (71.4%), tether their goats elsewhere (42.9%), feeding goat planted pasture (28.6%), leave a portion of prepared land for goat tethering (14.3%), feeding concentrates (14.3%), and use of alternative feed resources. In contrast pastoralists relied on migration (73%), alternative unconventional feed resources such as shrubs (27%), concentrates (16.2%) and changing of grazing system (2.7%).
Next to feed shortage, infectious diseases were major problems. Other challenges included marketing, as mentioned by 35.1% of pastoralists and 33.3% of intensive farmers. Goat theft (8.1%) and wildlife invasion (2.7%) were considered among pastoralists and intensive farmers complained about poor production (4.8%). Suggestions associated with the improvement of goat nutrition (farmers training and improve inputs) were shown not to associate with the production system. It was concluded that farmers in the two production systems had different period of feed shortage which was mitigated by changing management activities and feedstuffs among intensive farmers and migration among pastoralist. There was also widely adoption of the pasture establishment among intensive farmers as part of feed shortage mitigation probably from the previous projects. Marketing of goat products, wildlife invasion, theft and poor production had their own role in hindering goat farming as well.

Main title:Goat production in the tropics and mitigation to feed shortage in different production systems in Eastern, Tanzania
Authors:Ruvuga, Peter
Supervisor:Kronqvist, Cecilia
Examiner:Spörndly, Rolf
Series:Examensarbete / Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, Institutionen för husdjurens utfodring och vård
Volume/Sequential designation:574
Year of Publication:2016
Level and depth descriptor:Second cycle, A2E
Student's programme affiliation:VM003 Animal Science - Master's Programme 120 HEC
Supervising department:(VH) > Dept. of Animal Nutrition and Management (until 231231)
Keywords:pastoralists, small scale intensive system, other challenges, previous project versatility
Permanent URL:
Subject. Use of subject categories until 2023-04-30.:Animal husbandry
Animal feeding
Deposited On:02 Aug 2016 11:28
Metadata Last Modified:02 Aug 2016 11:28

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