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Johansson, Linda, 2014. Salinity effects on cadmium concentrations in blue mussels in the Baltic Sea. First cycle, G2E. Uppsala: SLU, Dept. of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment

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Abstract

This bachelor’s essay is a review written at the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences on suggestion from the Swedish Museum of Natural History.

The purpose of this study was to increase the understanding of how the salinity in the Baltic Sea affects the concentrations of cadmium (Cd) observed in blue mussels,
Mytilus edulis, and to be able to predict more accurate future trends of the bioavailable Cd. Cadmium is a heavy metal that deposits to the Baltic Sea by runoff, point
sources and atmospheric deposition. Cadmium is toxic to aquatic organisms and may bioaccumulate.

Blue mussels feed by filtering the water. Through the filtration the mussel is contaminated by chemical pollutants, which means that chemical analysis of mussels
can reflect how contaminated a habitat is. The mussels are suitable biomonitors since they are sedentary, easy to collect, abundant and large enough for tissue analysis.
In the Baltic Sea there is a salinity gradient with decreasing salinity from west to east and from south to north. The surface water has lower salinity compared to the
deep water. The mussel size is affected by the salinity with smaller mussels in less salty waters due to stress.
The amount of soluble cadmium in water is increasing with salinity since the salt is competing with Cd for adsorption sites on particles and the formation of soluble chloride complexes are increasing. However, since the chloride complexes are not bioavailable, the bioavailability of cadmium is increasing with decreasing salinity.

At the surface zooplanktons take up Cd from the water and in deeper layers it is released again by the decomposition by detritus, creating a vertical gradient. In deeper waters, below the detritus, the concentration is relatively constant.

While using organisms to examine pollutants, biological variations must be considered. One way to eliminate influences from individual differences is to put the
cadmium concentration in the soft tissue in relation to the mussel shells. Different body parts contain different concentrations of Cd. How the concentration is divided
between the body parts is however indefinitely, since different experiments have shown different results.

Main title:Salinity effects on cadmium concentrations in blue mussels in the Baltic Sea
Authors:Johansson, Linda
Supervisor:Sonesten, Lars and Bignert, Anders and Vasileiou, Maria
Examiner:Köhler, Stephan
Series:UNSPECIFIED
Volume/Sequential designation:UNSPECIFIED
Year of Publication:2014
Level and depth descriptor:First cycle, G2E
Student's programme affiliation:NK001 Biology and Environmental Science - Bachelor's Programme 180 HEC
Department:(NL, NJ) > Dept. of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment
Keywords:cadmium, Cd, salinity, blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, the Baltic Sea
URN:NBN:urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-s-3413
Permanent URL:
http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-s-3413
Subjects:Food contamination and toxicology
Pollution
Life sciences
Language:English
Deposited On:16 Jul 2014 12:43
Metadata Last Modified:16 Jul 2014 12:43

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