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Grim, Johanna and Johansson, Maria, 2012. Evaluation of a biogas plant in Adeiso, Ghana. Second cycle, A1N, A1F or AXX ( A1N). Uppsala: SLU, Dept. of Energy and Technology



The purpose of this study was to evaluate the function, stability and performance of the biogas plant at
HPW Fresh & Dry Ltd. in Adeiso, Ghana. The study showed that the process was functioning, with an
adequate average organic loading rate and methane content of the biogas. However, the digesters had
low alkalinity and were sensitive to disturbances, and the uneven feeding caused considerable pH and
biogas flow variations.
The influent consisted of 47 % fruit waste and 53 % water. At eight times during the project period,
poultry manure was added. The feeding occurred mainly between 8 am and 5 pm, ranging from 0 to 20
m3 per digester and day. The average daily feeding to one digester was 9.1 m3 which gives an organic
loading rate varying between 0 and 5.5 kg ODM per m3 and day. The average value was 2.6 kg ODM
per m3 and day.
The methane content of the biogas varied between 39 % to 61 %, with an average of 51 % in Digester
1 and 50 % in Digester 2. The methane content decreased during the day due to the feeding. The H2S
content was as high as 1900 ppm in the beginning of the period, probably due to accidental addition of
sulphur containing preservatives to the digesters. The concentration decreased steadily as a result of
process recovery.
From the two digesters combined the total biogas flow was estimated to values between 24 and 59
m3/h. The flow increased generally during the day, which is explained by the feeding pattern.
The pH of the influent varied between 3.6 and 5.2 with an average value of 4.0. The pH increased
when poultry manure was added. The pH of the digestate was 6.6-7.1 with an average of 6.9 in both
digesters. The temperature ranged from 31 to 34°C with an average of 33°C and was higher in the end
of the period. Generally, the pH decreased during the day, due to the feeding pattern. On days with
more feeding, the pH decreased more. The pH was higher and more stable in the end of the project
period, which is due to higher alkalinity and/or higher temperature.
The alkalinity was low, the bicarbonate alkalinity was measured weekly to values between 2 000 and
3 300 mg HCO3/l, while the total alkalinity ranged from 3 300 to 4 300 mg HCO3/l. However, the
alkalinity increased during the period, probably due to the addition of poultry manure.
The nutrient content in the substrates was low, giving a high C/N ratio. This implies a nitrogen
shortage in the digesters. Also, the ash content in the poultry manure was high, making it desirable to
replace it with another source of nitrogen.
From the findings of the study recommendations on further development of the plant were made.
These included a more even feeding, an improved mix of substrates and monitoring of operation

Main title:Evaluation of a biogas plant in Adeiso, Ghana
Authors:Grim, Johanna and Johansson, Maria
Supervisor:Sundberg, Cecilia and Aklaku, Elias
Examiner:Vinterbäck, Johan
Series:Projektarbete i energisystem / Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, Institutionen för energi och teknik
Volume/Sequential designation:2012:2
Year of Publication:2012
Level and depth descriptor:Second cycle, A1N, A1F or AXX
Student's programme affiliation:TE2SY Energy Systems Engineering (admitted before July 1, 2010) 300 HEC
Department:(NL, NJ) > Dept. of Energy and Technology
Keywords:biogas, anaerobic digestion, Ghana, waste management, fruit processing, Minor Field Study
Permanent URL:
Subjects:Agricultural engineering
Renewable energy resources
Deposited On:27 Nov 2012 14:10
Metadata Last Modified:27 Nov 2012 14:10

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