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Thune, Kristina, 2022. Valpars näringsbehov - vad blir konsekvenserna av felaktig utfodring. First cycle, G2E. Uppsala: SLU, Dept. of Animal Environment and Health (until 231231)



The nutrient requirement for puppies is affected by the age and size of the dog. The nutritional requirements for growing individuals are higher than for adult dogs. They have a higher requirement of energy, protein, calcium, and phosphorous to be able to grow and develop. The requirements are as highest after weaning and is slowly decreasing when the puppy is growing. Puppies of larger sizes grow in a quicker rate and during a longer period than smaller breeds.
The energy requirement is also lower for puppies of a larger size than smaller ones in comparison to the weight of the puppies. There are several different formulas to calculate the energy need for puppies. They all take the age and weight into consideration but usually do not take the activity level into consideration and not individual differences.
The amount of protein different puppies require does not differ much between breeds. The protein requirement is usually calculated in relation to the energy need and differ a bit between breeds, larger breeds require a slightly lower amount of protein per kilo bodyweight in comparison to smaller breeds.
Calcium and phosphorous are two important minerals in puppy nutrition. The requirement of calcium and phosphorous is calculated in relation of the energy need of the puppy. There is still a discussion among researchers about the optimal level, but most agree that puppies of larger breeds are more sensitive to the right concentration of calcium than puppies of smaller breeds. Because of this thus food for larger breeds of puppies contain lower amount of calcium per kcal to avoid overfeeding of calcium. The feed also needs to be balanced between the minerals and energy to provide a correct amount of minerals in comparison to the energy requirement.
There are several risks with improper feeding of puppies. If the puppies are not given the correct amount of calcium and phosphorous this increases the risks of skeletal diseases, DOD (developmental orthopedic disease). Another risk of improper feeding is overfeeding and that is most common with feeding ad libitum (free feeding). Overfeeding is increasing the risk for overweight, which is a big stress for the body, especially for larger breeds and overweight increases the risks of DOD.
How much energy, protein, and minerals the puppies should be given differ a lot between different written sources. In general puppies of larger breeds should be given a lower amount of energy and calcium per kilo bodyweight which is usually accomplished by giving then puppy food formulated for larger breeds. It is also important to take into consideration that all puppies are different, and it is important to acknowledge the recommended dosage of a food is a recommendation. A highly active puppy probably need more food than a puppy who doesn’t exercise as much. Pay attention to the body condition of the puppy and make sure that it have a healthy body conditions score.

Main title:Valpars näringsbehov - vad blir konsekvenserna av felaktig utfodring
Authors:Thune, Kristina
Supervisor:Lindqvist, Hanna
Examiner:Yngvesson, Jenny
Volume/Sequential designation:UNSPECIFIED
Year of Publication:2022
Level and depth descriptor:First cycle, G2E
Student's programme affiliation:VK005 Ethology and Animal Welfare - Bachelor's Programme, 180.0hp
Supervising department:(VH) > Dept. of Animal Environment and Health (until 231231)
Keywords:Feeding, growth, nutritional requirements, nutrition, pediatric nutrition, improper feeding, skeletal and joint problems
Permanent URL:
Subject. Use of subject categories until 2023-04-30.:Animal feeding
Deposited On:04 Apr 2023 07:56
Metadata Last Modified:05 Apr 2023 01:00

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