Home About Browse Search

Leao, Theodorik, 2020. Integration of green hydrogen in the European energy systems : technical maturity and impact assessment of hydrogen utilisation in 2020. Second cycle, A2E. Uppsala: SLU, Dept. of Energy and Technology



Hydrogen has been suggested as a way to decarbonise the global energy system for decades but has yet to have a breakthrough on the European energy market. For the past decade, the efforts to reduce carbon emissions in the European energy market have increased, leading to rapid changes and a decline in costs of renewable energy. These efforts to reduce carbon emissions, combined with difficulties of decarbonising in several sectors due to few viable alternatives, surged the interest in hydrogen as a possible solution. This thesis investigates how large scale production of hydrogen via electrolysers can be integrated into a future power system with high shares of renewable energy capacity. Based on a literature review, a scenario for the year 2050 was constructed with the aim to identify sectors with potential hydrogen demand in the future. The scenario focuses on Germany and the United Kingdom and was implemented in a power market dispatch model called Bid3 to analyse its effects on the European energy system. The hydrogen demand was estimated to 225 TWh for Germany and 157 TWh for the United Kingdom whereas the necessary storage capacity for the two countries was identified to between 20 to 24 TWh. The sectors with the largest hydrogen potential were identified as the residential and commercial heating sector as well as the heavy vehicle transportation sector. Moreover, the implementation of hydrogen managed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 88.8 M tonnes CO2-eq per year. The implemented electrolysers showed great synergy with renewable energy capacity by improving the flexibility of the power system. As a result, it also reduced the severity of price crashes due to oversupply of renewable energy generation. However, even with installed electrolysers, the high share of renewable energy capacity caused several hours of wholesale power price close to zero. Hence, the scenario highlighted the difficulties of obtaining a power system with a high share of renewable capacity within the regulations of the current power market.


Den europeiska energimarknaden ändras snabbt till följd av sjunkande kostnader för förnybar
energi och politisk vilja att reducera växthusutsläpp. Detta tillsammans med svårigheter att
byta ut kolbaserade produkter inom en del sektorer har lett till ett ökat intresse för vätgas som
en potentiell del av lösningen.
Denna uppsats analyserar hur storskalig vätgasproduktion med elektrolys kan integreras i
ett framtida elsystem med stor andel förnybar energi. Ett scenario för 2050 utformades för
att identifiera den potentiella efterfrågan av vätgas i flera sektorer. Scenariot fokuserade
på Tyskland och Storbritannien vilket implementerades i elsystemsmodellen Bid3 för att
analysera effekterna på energisystemen i Europa. Efterfrågan på vätgas uppskattades till 225
TWh för Tyskland och 157 TWh för Storbritannien, vilket täcktes av nationell produktion via
elektrolys och de sektorer med störst uppskattad efterfrågan identifierades som värmesektorn
samt transportsektorn. Genom produktion av vätgas som ersatte kolbaserade bränslen och
produkter, kunde utsläppen reduceras med 88.8 M ton CO2-ekv per år.
Vätgasproduktion med elektrolys i förbindelse till elnätet ökade också flexibiliteten i elsystemet. Detta ledde till större motstånd vid prisras som kan uppstå vid överproduktion av
förnybar energi. Dock ledde det konstruerade scenariot trots vätgasproduktion till ett stort antal timmar med låga elpriser, vilket visar på svårigheter i att integrera stora mängder förnybar
energi i den nuvarande elmarknaden.

Main title:Integration of green hydrogen in the European energy systems
Subtitle:technical maturity and impact assessment of hydrogen utilisation in 2020
Authors:Leao, Theodorik
Supervisor:Kraayvanger, Volker and Jung, Anna-Frederike and Fagiani, Dr. Riccardo
Examiner:Nordberg, Åke
Series:Examensarbete / Institutionen för energi och teknik, SLU
Volume/Sequential designation:2020:14
Year of Publication:2020
Level and depth descriptor:Second cycle, A2E
Student's programme affiliation:TES2Y Energy Systems Engineering 300 HEC
Supervising department:(NL, NJ) > Dept. of Energy and Technology
Keywords:electrolysis, PEM, energy-market, power-to-X, P2X, hydrogen-economy, sustainable
Permanent URL:
Subject. Use of subject categories until 2023-04-30.:Trade, marketing and distribution
Renewable energy resources
Deposited On:14 Dec 2020 11:44
Metadata Last Modified:15 Dec 2020 02:01

Repository Staff Only: item control page


Downloads per year (since September 2012)

View more statistics