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Malmgren, Louise, 2015. Sugar host preferences in adult Anopheles coluzzii : dry season plant selection in Burkina Faso. Second cycle, A2E. Uppsala: SLU, Dept. of Ecology

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Abstract

Human plasmodian species, transmitted by mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles, are still one of the leading causes of human mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa. To supplement
current vector control strategies, more knowledge about mosquito ecology is required. Central to studies is how malaria vectors relate to their blood hosts. Yet,
while we know that sugar is fundamental to male survival and indirectly to female fitness, the relationship between sugar and the highly anthropophilic females of the
principal vectors An. gambiae s.s. and An. coluzzii is debated. Sugar, acquired from floral nectaries and plant fluids, is important to replenish and maintain somatic
energy reserves, is known to extend female longevity and is more readily available for flight. However, recent sugar meals inhibit attraction to blood, and sugar in the crop reduces the intake of blood and thus female fecundity. Nonetheless, studies on sugar source preferences on females of the principal malaria vectors have demonstrated the existence of sugar attraction and feeding. Females of An. gambiae s.l. appear to display polymorphism for blood host preference, which has led to the suggestion that their response to nectar stimuli is similarly genetically based. If so, they might display an intrinsic ranking of host plant based on the local composition of available plants. This study was aimed at testing the discriminative sugar source selection of males and females of An. coluzzii among plant species found during the dry season in South-western Burkina Faso. In the field, data was collected on visits
to glue traps containing six common fruit- or flower bearing plant species of the area, by malaria vectors of locally present anopheline species as well as nonmalaria
vectors of the Culex genus. The results from the field were used to select plants of two combinations for a four-choice bioassay with adult males and females of An. coluzzii in the laboratory. The results indicate that wild culicine and anopheline mosquitoes display discriminative sugar source preferences, differing between genera. The same preference ranking of sugar hosts was found among An. coluzzii
mosquitoes in the laboratory regardless of sex, indicating a preference for Carica papaya and Delonix regia over Mangifera indica and Thevetia neriifolia. Fruit received the most feeding mosquitoes, while preferred plants generally attracted more resting and probing mosquitoes. The study was badly affected by climatic factors, which reduced mosquito activity. Nonetheless, it functioned as a pilot study on which further studies could be based, and was able to decisively demonstrate discriminative sugar source selection among female An. coluzzii in the laboratory.

Main title:Sugar host preferences in adult Anopheles coluzzii
Subtitle:dry season plant selection in Burkina Faso
Authors:Malmgren, Louise
Supervisor:Hopkins, Richard and Lefèvre, Thierry
Examiner:Terenius, Olle
Series:Självständigt arbete/Examensarbete / SLU, Institutionen för ekologi
Volume/Sequential designation:2015:3
Year of Publication:2015
Level and depth descriptor:Second cycle, A2E
Student's programme affiliation:NM004 Ecology - Master's Programme 120 HEC
Department:(NL, NJ) > Dept. of Ecology
(S) > Dept. of Ecology
Keywords:malaria, Burkina faso, dry season, Anopheles, Culex, Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles coluzzii, sugar source selection, preference, preference ranking, Delonix regia, Carica papaya, Mangifera indica, Thevetia neriifolia, Jatropha curcas, Azadirachta indica, Banana musa, probing, feeding, perching
URN:NBN:urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-s-4063
Permanent URL:
http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-s-4063
Subjects:Animal ecology
Language:English
Deposited On:22 Jan 2015 14:19
Metadata Last Modified:22 Jan 2015 14:19

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