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Noell, Sonja, 2013. Effects of brown bear (Ursus arctos) odour on the patch choice and behaviour of different ungulate species. Second cycle, A2E. Umeå: SLU, Dept. of Wildlife, Fish and Environmental Studies

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Abstract

The return of large predators to regions where they were previously extirpated has created a need for knowledge about their effect on prey species, not only their lethal but also their behavioural or risk effects. In this study the behavioural risk effects of brown bear (Ursus arctos) were tested on fallow deer (Dama dama), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), red deer (Cervus elaphus), moose (Alces alces) and wild boar (Sus scrofa). This was done by using
patches of fur to simulate the presence of the novel predator (brown bear), a novel nonpredator (reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) and no fur as control. These three treatments were then compared. The response variables measured were increased vigilance, decreased feeding time
and change in patch use. The results for fallow deer supported the hypothesis that there are fewer individuals present during the bear treatment (change in patch use). Red deer and roe deer changed the individuals present during treatments as well but they were least present
during the reindeer treatment and most during control. The results for roe deer support the hypothesis that there is more time spent on vigilance behaviour during the bear treatment by showing more ‘sniffing in the air’ behaviour during bear treatment than during reindeer and control treatments. As well as showing more ‘combined vigilance’ during bear treatment than during reindeer treatment (increased vigilance). The results for wild boar support the
hypothesis that there is less feeding behaviour during bear treatment by spending less time on ‘feeding on the ground’ during bear treatment than during control treatment (decreased feeding time). The hypothesis that feeding height is an aspect of vigilance behaviour and is
therefore influenced by the bear odour was not supported. The fact that every species reacted differently shows that studying risk effects in this manner outside under natural conditions is possible but requires detailed knowledge of species behaviour to be able to tailor experiments
exactly right to detect these effects.

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Återkomsten av stora rovdjur till områden där de tidigare utrotats har skapat ett behov för kunskap om hur de påverkar sina bytesarter, inte endast gällande dödliga effekter men också av beteenden, så kallade riskeffekter. I den här studien testades riskeffekterna av brunbjörn
(Ursus arctos) på dovhjort, rådjur, kronhjort, älg, och vildsvin. Detta gjordes genom att använda delar av päls för att simulera närvaro av en predator (brunbjörn), en icke-predator (ren), och en kontroll utan päls. Dessa tre behandlingar blev sedan jämförda.

Responsvariablerna som mättes var ökad vaksamhet (vigilance), minskad födotid och ändrat områdesutnyttjande. Resultaten för dovhjort stödde hypotesen att färre individer var närvarande under björnbehandling (ändrat områdesutnyttjande). Kronhjort och rådjur ändrade
antalet individer närvarande under de olika behandlingarna men de var minst närvarande under renbehandling och mest under kontrollen. Resultaten för rådjur stödjer hypotesen att mer tid är spenderad på vigilancebeteenden under björnbehandling genom att visa mer ”sniffande i luften”-beteende vid björnbehandling än under ren- och kontrollbehandling. De visade även mer ”kombinerad vigilance” under björnbehandlingen än under renbehandling
(ökad vaksamhet). Resultaten för vildsvin stödjer hypotesen att det uttrycks mindre födobeteende under björnbehandling eftersom vildsvinen spenderade mindre tid på ”äta på
marken” med björndoften än under kontrollen (mindre födotid). Hypotesen att födohöjd är ett sorts vigilancebeteende och därför påverkas av björndoft stöddes inte. Faktumet att varje art reagerade på olika vis visar att riskeffekter kan studeras under naturliga förhållanden med denna metod, men att det krävs detaljerad kunskap om arternas beteende för att kunna skräddarsy exmeriment på ett sätt som fångar dessa effekter.

Main title:Effects of brown bear (Ursus arctos) odour on the patch choice and behaviour of different ungulate species
Authors:Noell, Sonja
Supervisor:Cromsigt, Joris and Sahlén, Ellinor
Examiner:Ball, John
Series:Examensarbete i ämnet biologi / Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, Institutionen för vilt, fisk och miljö
Volume/Sequential designation:2013:15
Year of Publication:2013
Level and depth descriptor:Second cycle, A2E
Student's programme affiliation:None
Department:(S) > Dept. of Wildlife, Fish and Environmental Studies
Keywords:risk effects, odour, fallow deer (Dama dama), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), red deer (Cervus elaphus), moose (Alces alces), wild boar (Sus scrofa), Öster Malma
URN:NBN:urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-s-2679
Permanent URL:
http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-s-2679
Subjects:Forestry - General aspects
Animal ecology
Language:English
Deposited On:02 Sep 2013 14:59
Metadata Last Modified:02 Sep 2013 14:59

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