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Zeric, Dijana, 2012. Importance of epigenetics in animal breeding : genomic imprinting. First cycle, G2E. Uppsala: SLU, Dept. of Animal Breeding and Genetics

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Abstract

ABSTRACT
The aim of this study was to give an overview of the evidence for genomic imprinting in livestock and other mammals as well as outline the potential use of gene imprinting in livestock breeding. Epigenetics is the mitotical and meiotical partial hereditary variation in genomic activity without any alterations of the DNA sequence. An example of epigenetic regulation is genomic imprinting where one allele’s expression differs depending on which parent it was inherited from. These parent-of-origin effects are currently overlooked in livestock production. Many economically important traits in livestock are so called quantitative traits, some of which have shown indication of being partially controlled by imprinted genes. A variety of imprinted genes have been found in livestock that affect traits such as milk yield, growth and carcass traits, fat and meat deposition and fetal development. The implementation of breeding programs taking imprinting into account, will require changes in the current standard breeding programs. More focus on the maternal contribution will be needed. It will also provide different breeding values for males and females, dominance deviations and additive genetic variances.

SAMMANFATTNING
Syftet med denna studie var att sammanfatta tidigare studier inom området genomisk prägling (på engelska imprinting) hos lantbrukets husdjur och andra däggdjur samt diskutera potentiella användningsområden inom husdjursaveln. Epigenetik är den mitotiska och meiotiska partiella nedärvbara variationen i genomisk aktivitet som inte påverkas av DNA sekvensen. Ett exempel på epigenetiska förändringar är genomisk prägling där en allels uttryck skiljer sig beroende på vilken förälder den ärvdes ifrån. Dessa effekter beaktas inte i dagens avelsarbete trots att många ekonomiskt viktiga produktionsegenskaper till viss del kontrolleras av genomisk prägling. Flera präglade gener har hittats som associeras med egenskaper såsom mjölkavkastning, tillväxt och fosterutveckling. Implementeringen av avelsprogram som beaktar genomisk prägling kräver mer fokus på moderdjurets del i nedärvningen och kommer även att innebära skilda avelsvärden på honor och hanar, dominansavvikelser och additiva genetiska varianser.
Introduction

Main title:Importance of epigenetics in animal breeding
Subtitle:genomic imprinting
Authors:Zeric, Dijana
Supervisor:de Koning, Dirk-Jan and Berglund, Britt
Examiner:Andersson, Göran
Series:Examensarbete / Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Animal Breeding and Genetics
Volume/Sequential designation:363
Year of Publication:2012
Level and depth descriptor:First cycle, G2E
Student's programme affiliation:VY001 Agricultural Science Programme - Animal Science 270 HEC
Department:(VH) > Dept. of Animal Breeding and Genetics
Keywords:Epigenetics, Genomic Imprinting, X-linked QTL, IGF2
URN:NBN:urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-s-945
Permanent URL:
http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-s-945
Subjects:Animal genetics and breeding
Language:English
Deposited On:21 Feb 2012 15:16
Metadata Last Modified:23 Apr 2012 07:46

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