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Friman, Amanda, 2023. Serum TK1 activity and SAA concentration as biomarkers to differentiate lymphoma from gastrointestinal disease in cats. Second cycle, A2E. Uppsala: SLU, Dept. of Clinical Sciences

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Abstract

Alimentary lymphoma is one of the most common malignant neoplasms in the gastrointestinal (GI)
tract in cats. Since the clinical signs often are identical to those of inflammatory bowel disease
(IBD), and the findings on diagnostic imaging and endoscopic mucosal biopsies overlap, invasive
biopsy sampling from the GI tract is needed to be able to differentiate these two diseases from each
other. Thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) is a cell cycle specific cytosolic enzyme involved in DNA
synthesis and cell repair, and is commonly used as a tumor biomarker in human oncology since the
TK1 activity increases with high cell turnover which is commonly seen in tumors. The aim of this
study was to evaluate if sTK1 can be useful as a biomarker to differentiate cats with lymphoma from
cats with acute to chronic GI disease. The relation between sTK1 activity and a marker for
inflammation, the acute-phase protein serum amyloid A (SAA), was also examined, to evaluate if
there is a correlation between sTK1 activity and SAA in cats with GI disease and lymphoma, and if
a combination of the two assays strengthens the accuracy and predictive value.
Private-owned cats of varying breeds, ages and genders were recruited into three different groups;
one group of 41 healthy control cats that were classified as healthy based on clinical examination
and blood analysis; one group of 54 cats with GI disease that was presenting with vomiting, diarrhea,
weight-loss and/or anorexia and of which a diagnosis related to the GI tract had been reached, and
one group of 14 cats with confirmed lymphoma. Sera was collected from all cats and sTK1 activity
was measured using the [
3H]-dThd phosphorylation assay while SAA was measured with a latex
turbidimetric immunoassay. The results showed that cats with lymphoma had a significantly higher
sTK1 activity compared to both healthy cats (p<0.01) and cats with GI disease (p<0.05), and the
sTK1 activity assay for lymphoma had a higher accuracy, sensitivity and specificity compared to
the SAA concentration assay for this group. In contrast, the SAA concentration in was significantly
higher in cats with GI disease compared to healthy cats (p<0.01) and showed a higher accuracy,
sensitivity and specificity compared to the sTK1 activity assay. The combination of sTK1 and SAA
analyses showed a small, but statistically significant, added sensitivity and specificity in cats with
GI disease, but not in the lymphoma group. There was also a weak correlation between TK1 and
SAA in cats with lymphoma and cats with GI disease.
This study concludes that sTK1 is not useful as a biomarker for differentiating between lymphoma
and GI disease in cats, as there is a high degree of overlap between the two groups. There are
however indications that TK1 might be useful in malignancy assessment, monitoring of disease
progression and prognosis estimation. Another conclusion is that there is a correlation between TK1
and SAA, although the correlation is weak and the combination of the two values do not strengthen
the accuracy or predictive value for cats with lymphoma or GI disease, which means that SAA is
not useful as an additional biomarker to sTK1 for this purpose. However, this study indicates that
cats with inflammatory disease and pancreatitis may have an elevated sTK1 and SAA in the acute
phase of disease that is later decreased if the tissue damage is reduced. More studies with a larger
lymphoma group and with follow-up samples for the cats with GI disease and lymphoma are
necessary to confirm these conclusions. Further studies on the potential use of both sTK1 and SAA
in disease monitoring, malignancy assessment and evaluation of prognosis are also recommended.

Main title:Serum TK1 activity and SAA concentration as biomarkers to differentiate lymphoma from gastrointestinal disease in cats
Authors:Friman, Amanda
Supervisor:Rönnberg, Henrik and Saellström, Sara
Examiner:Hanson, Jeanette
Series:UNSPECIFIED
Volume/Sequential designation:UNSPECIFIED
Year of Publication:2023
Level and depth descriptor:Second cycle, A2E
Student's programme affiliation:VY009 Veterinary Medicine programme, 330.0hp
Supervising department:(VH) > Dept. of Clinical Sciences
Keywords:lymphoma, gastrointestinal lymphoma, feline lymphoma, inflammatory bowel disease, IBD, thymidine kinase 1, TK1, biomarker, cancer, cats
URN:NBN:urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-s-18694
Permanent URL:
http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-s-18694
Subject. Use of subject categories until 2023-04-30.:Animal diseases
Language:English
Deposited On:17 Mar 2023 06:38
Metadata Last Modified:15 Mar 2024 02:15

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