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Eberson, Linnea, 2022. Antibiotic use and resistance in the food and agricultural sectors in Bangladesh : present risk factors and possible improvements. Second cycle, A2E. Uppsala: SLU, Dept. of Clinical Sciences

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Abstract

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is one of the biggest threats against public health in the world.
Antimicrobial substances are used within all different sectors and contribute to development of
AMR. Global action against irresponsible use of antibiotics and further development of AMR has
been of great concern in the last years and risk factors are being pointed out.
Low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) have a precarious role in the matter. Insufficient
health care systems, poor law enforcement and, high accessibility of over-the-counter drugs (OTCs)
are contributing to the unregulated use of antibiotics. Poorly developed surveillance programmes
make it hard to correctly analyse the situation of both antimicrobial use (AMU) and AMR.
Bangladesh, like its neighbouring countries, faces a lot of challenges regarding public health.
One of the major concerns related to public health is access to safe food. Food products can be
contaminated with toxins, chemical substances, and microbial organisms, including AMR-bacteria.
Furthermore, national programmes for surveillance of AMU and AMR are inadequate.
In this study, data from previously done field studies by Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute
(BLRI), Bangladesh Food Safety Authority (BFSA), International Livestock Research Institute
(ILRI), and International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) and newly collected information
from interviews were put together to analyse the AMR situation in Bangladesh. Sampling of food
products (tomato, chicken, fish) from traditional markets and supermarkets was done at three
locations representing rural, peri-urban, and urban areas from November 2018 to June 2019.
Samples were tested for prevalence of Salmonella spp, Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae. Samples
positive for bacteria were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility through disc diffusion test. As a
supplement to the analysis of samples, questionnaires to the vendors of the food products were made
to provide background information. During 2020, statistical analysis of previously collected data
and interviews with stakeholders working with AMR was made. The interviews aimed to serve as
baseline information about current conditions regarding AMU and AMR.
320 cultivations of 1589 (20.1%) were positive for bacterial prevalence. 319 of these were tested
for antimicrobial susceptibility where 203 (63.6%) were found to be multidrug-resistant (MDR)
(resistant to three or more antibiotic groups). Furthermore, interviews with stakeholders stated that
surveillance of AMU and AMR in Bangladesh is inadequate, especially within the animal and
agriculture sector, and that a one health approach on a government level is needed to improve the
situation. To be able to fully analyse the AMR situation in Bangladesh, a nation-wide study would
need to be conducted, within all sectors, including both AMU and AMR testing.

Main title:Antibiotic use and resistance in the food and agricultural sectors in Bangladesh
Subtitle:present risk factors and possible improvements
Authors:Eberson, Linnea
Supervisor:Lindahl, Johanna
Examiner:Osbjer, Kristina
Series:UNSPECIFIED
Volume/Sequential designation:UNSPECIFIED
Year of Publication:2022
Level and depth descriptor:Second cycle, A2E
Student's programme affiliation:VY002 Veterinary Medicine Programme 330 HEC
Supervising department:(VH) > Dept. of Clinical Sciences
Keywords:AMR, Bangladesh, AMU, multidrug resistant (MDR), low-and middle-income countries
URN:NBN:urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-s-17520
Permanent URL:
http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-s-17520
Subjects:Rural sociology and social security
Veterinary science and hygiene - General aspects
Pollution
Language:English
Deposited On:17 Feb 2022 06:59
Metadata Last Modified:18 Feb 2022 02:02

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