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Fogelberg, Johanna, 2020. Canine rabies in Vientiane Prefecture, Lao PDR : vaccination status and protection level. Second cycle, A2E. Uppsala: SLU, Dept. of Clinical Sciences

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Abstract

Rabies is a fatal viral disease that is primarily transmitted to humans by domesticated dogs.
Canine rabies is estimated to be accountable for the death of 59,000 humans each year in the
world and if post-exposure treatment is not initiated, death usually occurs within a month after
first signs of symptoms. Rabies is however preventable through engaging the society and
educating regarding rabies and the importance of post-exposure treatment. Another important
measure is rabies vaccination of dogs. Research show that if 70% of the canine population is
vaccinated against the rabies virus, it is enough to prevent human cases of dog-mediated rabies,
which is why many endemic countries conduct mass dog vaccination campaigns.

The continents with most human cases of canine rabies are Africa and Asia. In this study, the
vaccination status of dogs in Vientiane Prefecture in Lao PDR was investigated. Laos is a
country located in Southeast Asia, with boarders to Cambodia, Thailand, Myanmar, China, and
Vietnam. Every year, there are two to four human deaths due to rabies in Laos. To investigate
the vaccination status, a survey was conducted in Vientiane Prefecture where dog owners were
asked questions regarding the dog, the dog’s living situation and vaccination status. Serum was
then collected from the dogs and analysed for rabies virus neutralizing antibodies using the
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test. The test distinguishes the samples that have
detectable rabies virus neutralizing antibodies, which then are considered positive for
antibodies. It also detects the samples that has an antibody level greater than 0.5 IU/ml. These
dogs are considered as protected against rabies.

Our results showed that 28.38% of dogs included in the study had detectable antibodies against
rabies, and 13.19% of the sampled dogs were protected against rabies. When asking the owners
about any previous vaccinations, the answers were deviant from the results. The study also
showed that more dogs in the districts closer to Vientiane capital city were vaccinated compared
to dogs living in districts further away. The results in this study highlights the deficiency
regarding rabies vaccination among dogs in Vientiane Prefecture and further mass dog rabies
vaccination campaigns need to be conducted to make Lao PDR free of dog-mediated human
deaths of rabies.

Main title:Canine rabies in Vientiane Prefecture, Lao PDR
Subtitle:vaccination status and protection level
Authors:Fogelberg, Johanna
Supervisor:Lindahl, Johanna and Vannaphone, Phouthana
Examiner:Berg, Mikael
Series:UNSPECIFIED
Volume/Sequential designation:UNSPECIFIED
Year of Publication:2020
Level and depth descriptor:Second cycle, A2E
Student's programme affiliation:VY002 Veterinary Medicine Programme 330 HEC
Supervising department:(VH) > Dept. of Clinical Sciences
Keywords:Lao, dog, vaccination, antibodies, ELISA, rabies
URN:NBN:urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-s-16135
Permanent URL:
http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-s-16135
Subjects:Animal diseases
Language:English
Deposited On:15 Oct 2020 11:55
Metadata Last Modified:16 Oct 2020 01:02

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