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Goncalves, Daniel, 2017. Prevalence of subclinical mastitis and intramammary infections in camels with clinically healthy udders in Kenya. Second cycle, A2E. Uppsala: SLU, Dept. of Clinical Sciences

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Abstract

For pastoralists in Kenya camel milk is an important source of nutrition and income. Previous studies have revealed that subclinical mastitis (SCM) is both common in camels and unknown amongst the pastoralists themselves. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of SCM and the prevalence of intramammary infections (IMI) in dairy camels (Camelus dromedarius) from two different ranch herds in the Laikipia district, Kenya, to examine teat morphology of these camels and to investigate if an association between teat morphology and SCM or IMI exists. In addition to this the association between teat morphology and three camel factors (age, number of parties and days in milk) will be examined.

A further aim was to investigate which bacterial species were present in IMI and the association between IMI and SCM. The possible association between IMI or SCM and three camel factors will be investigated.

All lactating camels with clinically healthy udders in the two herds were included in the study, 35 in total. For each camel milk samples were collected from each quarter and all quarters were examined by California Mastitis Test (CMT). One of the herds was visited twice and the other herd three times, and all lactating females were sampled on each occasion.

In total, 138 individual udder quarters from 35 camels were included in the study. Out of the 35 camels, 13 were sampled once, 13 were sampled twice, and 9 were sampled three times. One of the camels in the study had 2 blind teats and one sample was lost during transport to the lab. In total, this resulted in 261 quarter milk samples and 253 CMT-results. In addition, each udder was photographed from both sided with a ruler underneath for scale (35 udders altogether). Information about age, days in milk (DIM) and number of parities was collected for each camel.

Bacteriological analysis was done locally at Analabs laboratories ltd, Nairobi, Kenya and species determination using MALDI-ToF at Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Uppsala, Sweden. In this study SCM was defined as CMT ≥3 and IMI as bacterial growth of monoculture. The teat width (TW) and teat length (TL) were measured digitally using the pictures of the udders. T-test and univariable mixed-effect linear regression analyses were used to investigate associations between TL or TW and age, parity, DIM, prevalence of SCM and IMI. The Chi2 test was used to compare age, parity, DIM, IMI and SCM.

The quarter level prevalence of SCM was 11% and the animal level prevalence was 29%. The quarter level prevalence of IMI was 48% and the animal level prevalence was 89%. Average TL was 50mm and average TW was 32mm. There was a strong correlation between TL and TW. Front teats were significantly longer and wider than hind teats but no significant difference was found between left and right side for either front or hind teats. A significant association was found between TW and parity, where camels in parity one or two had wider teats than camels in parity four. No significant association between TL or TW and SCM or IMI was found. The bacterial species identified in quarter milk samples with IMI were: S. simulans (26%), Str. pluranimalium (17%), S. hyicus (5%), S. haemolyticus (5%), S. chromogenes (5%), S. aureus (5%), S. agalactiae (5%), S. gallolyticus (5%), S. ovis (2%), C. efficiens (2%) and S. epidermidis (2%). It was not possible to identify 21% of the bacterial species found. The association between IMI and SCM was not significant in this study.

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Kamelmjölk är en viktig källa till näring och inkomst för pastoralisteer i Kenya. Tidigare studier har visat att subklinisk mastit (SCM) är både vanligt bland kamelerna och okänt hos pastoralisterna. Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka prevalensen av SCM samt prevalensen av intramammära infektioner (IMI) hos mjölkkameler (Camelus dromedarius) i två hjordar på två rancher i Laikipia distriktet, Kenya, att undersöka spenmorfologin hos dessa kameler samt att undersöka om det finns något samband mellan SCM eller IMI och spenmorfologi. Dessutom ska sambandet mellan spenmorfoliogi och tre kamelfaktorer (ålder, antal dräktigheter, laktationsstadie) undersökas.

Ytterligare ett mål var att undersöka vilka bakterier som hittas hos kameler med IMI, och om något samband mellan SCM och IMI kan ses. Även den möjliga associationen mellan SCM eller IMI och de tre kamelfaktorerna ska studeras.

Alla lakterande kameler med kliniskt friska juver i de två hjordarna inkluderade i studien, totalt 35 stycken. Alla fyra juverdelar undersöktes med California Mastitis Test (CMT) och ett mjölkprov samlades in ifrån varje juverdel. En av hjordarna besöktes två gånger, den andra tre gånger och alla lakterande kameler provtogs varje gång. Totalt resulterade detta i 261 mjölkprov och 253 CMT-prov. Utöver detta fotograferades alla 35 juver ifrån båda sidor, med en linjal under juvret för att få en skala i bilden. Information om ålder, laktationsstadium (DIM) samt antal laktationer samlades in för varje kamel.

Den bakteriologiska odlingen utfördes av Analabs laboratories ltd, Nairobi, Kenya och artbestämning med MALDI-ToF gjordes på Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet (SLU), Uppsala, Sverige. I denna studie så definierades SCM som ett CMT-värde under 3 och IMI som bakteriell växt i monokultur. Spenlängd (TL) och spenvidd (TW) mättes digitalt i bilderna på juvren. Ttest och enkel linjär regressions analys användes för att undersöka om det fanns något samband mellan TL eller TW och ålder, antal laktationer, DIM, SCM eller IMI.

Prevalensen av SCM var 13% på juverfjärdedelsnivå och 29% på kamelnivå. Prevalensen av IMI var 48% på juverfjärdedelsnivå och 91% på kamelnivå. Medel för TL var 50mm och medel för TW var 32mm. En stark korrelation mellan TL och TW fanns. Framspenar var signifikant längre och vidare än bakspenar, men ingen signifikant sidoskillnad sågs. Det fanns ett signifikant samband mellan TW och antal laktationer, kameler i första eller andra laktationen hade vidare spenar än kameler i sin fjärde laktation. Ingen signifikant association sågs mellan TL eller TW och SCM eller IMI. De bakterier som identifierades mjölkprover med IMI var; S. simulans (26%), Str. pluranimalium (17%), S. hyicus (5%), S. haemolyticus (5%), S. chromogenes (5%), S. aureus (5%), S. agalactiae (5%), S. gallolyticus (5%), S. ovis (2%), C. efficiens (2%) och S. epidermidis (2%). Vi lyckades inte artbestämma 21% av bakterierna som hittades. Associationen mellan IMI och SCM var inte signifikant i denna studie.

Main title:Prevalence of subclinical mastitis and intramammary infections in camels with clinically healthy udders in Kenya
Authors:Goncalves, Daniel
Supervisor:Morrell, Jane and Nyman, Ann
Examiner:Persson Waller, Karin
Series:Examensarbete / Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, Fakulteten för veterinärmedicin och husdjursvetenskap, Veterinärprogrammet
Volume/Sequential designation:2017:83
Year of Publication:2017
Level and depth descriptor:Second cycle, A2E
Student's programme affiliation:VY002 Veterinary Medicine Programme 330 HEC
Supervising department:(VH) > Dept. of Clinical Sciences
Keywords:mastitis, subclinical mastitis, scm, intrammammary infection, imi, camel, camels, Kenya, dromedary, milk, udder, teat, length
URN:NBN:urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-s-9609
Permanent URL:
http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-s-9609
Subjects:Animal husbandry
Veterinary science and hygiene - General aspects
Animal diseases
Language:English
Deposited On:12 Jul 2018 06:10
Metadata Last Modified:25 Feb 2019 13:51

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